Qt Quick Test

介绍

Qt Quick Test 是用于 QML 应用程序的单元测试框架。测试用例被编写成 JavaScript 函数在 TestCase 类型:

import QtQuick 2.3
import QtTest 1.0
TestCase {
    name: "MathTests"
    function test_math() {
        compare(2 + 2, 4, "2 + 2 = 4")
    }
    function test_fail() {
        compare(2 + 2, 5, "2 + 2 = 5")
    }
}
							

函数名称开头采用 test_ are treated as test cases to be executed. See the documentation for the TestCase and SignalSpy types for more information on writing test cases.

注意: There is no binary compatibility guarantee for the Qt Quick Test module. This means that an application that uses Qt Quick Test is only guaranteed to work with the Qt version it was developed against. However, source compatibility is guaranteed.

使用模块

QML API

The QML types in Qt Quick Test are available through the QtTest 导入。要使用类型,添加以下 import 语句到 .qml 文件:

import QtTest
							

C++ API

使用 C++ API 要求直接或透过其它依赖链接到模块库。一些构建工具为此有贡献支持,包括 CMake and qmake .

构建采用 CMake

使用 find_package() 命令以在 Qt6 包中定位所需的模块组件:

find_package(Qt6 COMPONENTS QuickTest REQUIRED)
target_link_libraries(mytarget PRIVATE Qt6::QuickTest)
							

另请参阅 构建采用 CMake 概述。

采用 qmake 构建

There are two ways to link against the corresponding C++ library. If your test project uses a QML TestCase , you should already have the following line in your project file:

CONFIG += qmltestcase
							

This will cause the test to link to the C++ QtQuickTest library.

If you have a C++-only test project, you can add the following line to your project file:

QT += qmltest
							

运行测试

Test cases are launched by a C++ harness that consists of the following code:

#include <QtQuickTest>
QUICK_TEST_MAIN(example)
							

Where "example" is the identifier to use to uniquely identify this set of tests. Finally, add CONFIG += qmltestcase 到工程文件:

TEMPLATE = app
TARGET = tst_example
CONFIG += warn_on qmltestcase
SOURCES += tst_example.cpp
							

The test harness scans the specified source directory recursively for "tst_*.qml" files. If QUICK_TEST_SOURCE_DIR is not defined, then the current directory will be scanned when the harness is run. Other *.qml files may appear for auxillary QML components that are used by the test.

-input command-line option can be set at runtime to run test cases from a different directory. This may be needed to run tests on a target device where the compiled-in directory name refers to a host. For example:

tst_example -input /mnt/SDCard/qmltests
							

It is also possible to run a single file using the -input 选项。例如:

tst_example -input data/test.qml
							
tst_example -input <full_path>/test.qml
							

注意: Specifying the full path to the qml test file is for example needed for shadow builds.

If your test case needs QML imports, then you can add them as -import options to the test program command-line.

IMPORTPATH is specified in your .pro file, each import path added to IMPORTPATH will be passed as a command-line argument when the test is run using "make check":

IMPORTPATH += $$PWD/../imports/my_module1 $$PWD/../imports/my_module2
							

-functions command-line option will return a list of the current tests functions. It is possible to run a single test function using the name of the test function as an argument. For example:

tst_example Test_Name::function1
							

-help command-line option will return all the options available.

tst_example -help
							

在 QML 测试之前执行 C++

To execute C++ code before any of the QML tests are run, the QUICK_TEST_MAIN_WITH_SETUP macro can be used. This can be useful for setting context properties on the QML engine, amongst other things.

The macro is identical to QUICK_TEST_MAIN , except that it takes an additional QObject* argument. The test framework will call slots and invokable functions with the following names:

Name 目的 Since
void applicationAvailable() Called right after the QApplication object was instantiated. Use this function to perform setup that does not require a QQmlEngine 实例。 Qt 5.12
void qmlEngineAvailable(QQmlEngine *) Called when the QML engine is available. Any import paths , plugin paths ,和 extra file selectors will have been set on the engine by this point.

This function is called once for each QML test file, so any arguments are unique to that test. For example, this means that each QML test file will have its own QML engine.

此函数可用于 注册 QML 类型 and 添加导入路径 , amongst other things.

Qt 5.11
void cleanupTestCase() Called right after the test execution has finished. Use this function to clean up before everything will start to be destructed. Qt 5.12

The following example demonstrates how the macro can be used to set context properties on the QML engine:

// src_qmltest_qquicktest.cpp
#include <QtQuickTest>
#include <QQmlEngine>
#include <QQmlContext>
class Setup : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
public:
    Setup() {}
public slots:
    void qmlEngineAvailable(QQmlEngine *engine)
    {
        engine->rootContext()->setContextProperty("myContextProperty", QVariant(true));
    }
};
QUICK_TEST_MAIN_WITH_SETUP(mytest, Setup)
#include "src_qmltest_qquicktest.moc"
							

.moc include is based on the file name of the .cpp file. For example, in the example above, the .cpp file is named src_qmltest_qquicktest.cpp . If the file was named MyTest.cpp , the include would be:

#include "MyTest.moc"
							

参考

许可

Qt Quick Test 在商业许可下是可用的来自 Qt 公司 。此外,它在自由软件许可下是可用的。从 Qt 5.4 起,这些自由软件许可是 GNU LGPL (次一般公共许可) 第 3 版 ,或 GNU GPL (一般公共许可) 第 2 版 。见 Qt 许可 进一步了解细节。