用例 - QML 中的视觉元素

矩形类型

对于最基本视觉, Qt Quick 提供 Rectangle 类型来绘制矩形。这些矩形可以采用颜色或垂直渐变进行着色。 Rectangle 类型还可以绘制矩形边框。

为在矩形外绘制自定义形状,见 Canvas 类型或显示预渲染图像使用 图像 类型。

import QtQuick
Item {
    width: 320
    height: 480
    Rectangle {
        color: "#272822"
        width: 320
        height: 480
    }
    // This element displays a rectangle with a gradient and a border
    Rectangle {
        x: 160
        y: 20
        width: 100
        height: 100
        radius: 8 // This gives rounded corners to the Rectangle
        gradient: Gradient { // This sets a vertical gradient fill
            GradientStop { position: 0.0; color: "aqua" }
            GradientStop { position: 1.0; color: "teal" }
        }
        border { width: 3; color: "white" } // This sets a 3px wide black border to be drawn
    }
    // This rectangle is a plain color with no border
    Rectangle {
        x: 40
        y: 20
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "red"
    }
}
							

图像类型

Qt Quick 提供 图像 类型可用于显示图像。 图像 类型拥有 source property whose value can be a remote or local URL, or the URL of an image file embedded in a compiled resource file.

// This element displays an image. Because the source is online, it may take some time to fetch
Image {
    x: 40
    y: 20
    width: 61
    height: 73
    source: "http://codereview.qt-project.org/static/logo_qt.png"
}
							

对于更复杂图像,存在的其它类型类似 图像 . BorderImage 采用栅格比例缩放绘制图像,适用于用作边框的图像。 AnimatedImage plays animated .gif and .mng images. AnimatedSprite and SpriteSequence play animations comprised of multiple frames stored adjacently in a non animated image format.

共享视觉特性

All visual items provided by Qt Quick are based on the Item type, which provides a common set of attributes for visual items, including opacity and transform attributes.

不透明度和可见性

The QML object types provided by Qt Quick have built-in support for opacity . Opacity can be animated to allow smooth transitions to or from a transparent state. Visibility can also be managed with the visible property more efficiently, but at the cost of not being able to animate it.

import QtQuick
Item {
    width: 320
    height: 480
    Rectangle {
        color: "#272822"
        width: 320
        height: 480
    }
    Item {
        x: 20
        y: 270
        width: 200
        height: 200
        MouseArea {
            anchors.fill: parent
            onClicked: topRect.visible = !topRect.visible
        }
        Rectangle {
            x: 20
            y: 20
            width: 100
            height: 100
            color: "red"
        }
        Rectangle {
            id: topRect
            opacity: 0.5
            x: 100
            y: 100
            width: 100
            height: 100
            color: "blue"
        }
    }
}
							

变换

Qt Quick types have built-in support for transformations. If you wish to have your visual content rotated or scaled, you can set the Item::rotation or Item::scale property. These can also be animated.

import QtQuick
Item {
    width: 320
    height: 480
    Rectangle {
        color: "#272822"
        width: 320
        height: 480
    }
    Rectangle {
        rotation: 45 // This rotates the Rectangle by 45 degrees
        x: 20
        y: 160
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "blue"
    }
    Rectangle {
        scale: 0.8 // This scales the Rectangle down to 80% size
        x: 160
        y: 160
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "green"
    }
}
							

更复杂变换,见 Item::transform 特性。